We asked for your help in answering a query from Stella McGuire who is archaeologist working on the Eastern Moors. If you read down to the end of the article, you will see that Stella has written again with some more information. Here's her original enquiry:
I am trying to find out more about the brick 'observatories' built as survey points to set out the line of the Totley Tunnel. I have a copy of Brian Edwards' book, 'Totley and the Tunnel', and I also have a copy of the article by Percy Rickard in the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers.
I understand that the ruined brick structure just east of the ventilation shaft on Totley Moor is thought to be the remains of the 'summit ' observatory. I wondered whether the History Group had any photographs or drawings of this structure before it became so ruinous – or any information on the other survey points (built at Bradway and on Sir William Hill etc.).
Many thanks for any help.
Here is some background to the subject. In his book Totley and the Tunnel, first published in 1985, Brian Edwards wrote:
To survey the line, brick observatories were built on three high points: at Bradway above and beyond Dore Station, on the Sir William Hill at Grindleford and the main one on Totley Moss. Sightings were taken from the later using a 6 inch theodolite. This procedure established the line on which to build the railway. Percy Rickard, in his report to the Institute of Civil Engineers, describes in detail the interesting surveying techniques used with distances of over 3 miles in each direction from the instrument to the two terminal stations.
These techniques were reproduced by John Whitelaw, Junior in his book Surveying as Practised by Civil Engineers and Surveyors, published in 1902. Here is an extract referring to the location and physical construction of the observatories.
The profile was favourable to this work, distinct changes in the surface taking place at convenient distances, and high ground beyond each extremity of the tunnel accommodated terminal stations which could be seen from the summit observatory; there was no need to reverse the transit instrument except at that point. The line having been fixed with as much accuracy as could be obtained with a 6 in. theodolite, brick observatories were built at the extreme stations (Bradway and Sir William), and at each end of the changes of the ground surface over the tunnel. In addition to these, an observatory (No. 3 west) was also built beyond the entrance at Padley, at a level to command the heading on the 1 in 1,000 gradient; and a station was fixed at the foot of the hill beyond (No. 4 west), to enable these two points to be seen from within the heading whenever necessary. The observatories were built hollow of brickwork in cement and capped with stone. A large flat cast-iron plate, having a hole 6 in. wide in the centre, was let into the cap and run with cement. Upon this the transit instrument rested.
Brian Edwards implied that the main observatory was still visible in 1985 when he ended his book with these words:
No. 5 [airshaft] high up on the moors continues as it was, rising like a conning tower od some submarine near the Owler Bar to Fox House Road. Up there, little has changed for thousands of years, the shaft is in remarkably good condition considering the extremes of climate; nearby lies a tip of discarded bricks. In another hundred years that will become uneven bumps under the tough grass and bracken as will the remains of the brick observatory from which sightings were taken for the original survey. That's where the work began.
At the time of the 100th anniversary of the tunnel's opening, short accounts of the surveying methods appeared in Dore to Door and Bradway Bugle but apart from refering to the Bradway observatory as Bradway Summit gave no further indication of their location. A search of Totley Independent has revealed nothing.
Stella believes that the ruins of the Totley Moor observatory lie close to Airshaft Number 5, which was constructed for ventilation after the tunnel was built. But in his book Walks Around Totley, published in 1995, John Campion Barrows (aka Campy) had this to say in Walk 4:
Turn right along a well-defined track towards the Stony Ridge Road (note the gaunt ruins of a plate-layers hut used by the railway workers in the last century and just beyond [i.e. to the west] is the air shaft from the Totley tunnel).
Campy said much the same in Walk 20:
Note the air shaft that dominates the skyline. Over to the right and the gaunt ruins of a railway maintenance hut.
There is a reference to the Bradway Summit observatory in Fiona Wainwright's book Greenhill: A History of Greenhill and the Surrounding Area:
The Observation Tower
This was an observation point for taking readings connected to the Totley tunnel. It was a brick tower that stood until the 1930s. It was approximately where the back gardens at the end of Elwood Road now are.
Fiona's book is full of old photographs but, sadly, none of the observatory.
Stella is now pretty convinced that the ruined brick structure on the moor (see above) is not in fact the summit observatory as she first thought but a small brick structure of unknown purpose about 50 metres to its NNE. Both are shown on a 1922 map with the observatory being on the line of the tunnel.
That said she would still like to see any old photographs of the structure when it was in a better state of repair and would like to know what function it served. It would seem that it was connected to the construction of the tunnel.
Stella also found map evidence for the sites of the western (Sir William Hill) and eastern (Bradway) survey points. On the 1923 map there is an 'old observatory' marked at approximately SK23057830, just west of Newfoundland Nursery, and precisely in line with the tunnel. At the eastern end of the sightline, on the 1922 map there is an 'old observatory' marked just south of the Beauchief golf course at approx SK33258075, again in line with the tunnel, and now under the end of Elwood Road, thus confirming Fiona Wainwright's location above.
We are still undertaking searches of Brian's research papers (which are only partly catalogued) but if you have any further information and any photographs, no matter what their age or condition, please write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stella McGuire has updated us on the work that she and colleagues have been doing in connection with the Totley Tunnel observatories. The probable footings of four of the towers have now been located: one on Sir William Hill, one in Padley Woods, one close to the summit ventilation shaft (No. 5), one on Wimble Holme Hill. One or two locations still remain to be checked. Photographs of a surviving sighting tower or towers in North Yorkshire have been found, which look to be of similar design to the one shown by Percy Rickard, the resident engineer at Totley, in his account of building the tunnel. One of Stella's colleagues has also produced an initial measured plan of the brick ruins close to No. 5 airshaft, which appear to be the remains of a narrow, arched building, probably an explosives house, although this needs to be proved. Stella and her colleagues have been asked to produce a short article on the sighting towers for the January 2015 edition of ACID (Archaeology and Conservation in Derbyshire) which we look forward to seeing.
In Issue 12 of ACID (Archaeology and Conservation in Derbyshire), Stella McGuire and Stuart Nunn, of the Eastern Moors Partnership, describe their search for the missing sighting towers built in the late 1880s to enable Percy Rickard and his team of surveyors to set out the line of the Totley Tunnel.
In his paper The Tunnels of the Dore and Chinley Railway, published posthumously by the The Institute of Civil Engineers in January 1894. Rickard described the towers as being of varying heights, built of brickwork and capped with stone with a flat cast-iron plate let into the cap to secure the survey instruments.
There were three sighting points to the west of the Summit Observatory, high on Totley Moor, and four to the east. Approximate locations were described by Rickard and the authors first tried to find an observatory on Wimble Holme Hill. They referred to old Ordnance Survey maps, the archives of the Sheffield Clarion Ramblers and a database established by ArcHeritage in their survey of the Eastern Moors. Having been allowed to conduct a small scale excavation, the authors now suggest that the remains of a brick structure, in line with the tunnel, and which had hitherto been thought to be a possible chimney base, is in fact the footings of Observatory No. 1 East.
Stella and Stuart then noticed that at some of the sighting points on Rickard's plan, no tower symbol is shown and surmised that at these points there was no need to raise the survey instruments to any great height. They investigated three such points: No 4 West on the western edge of the Grindleford to Hathersage Road; No 1. West just north of the Wooden Pole and No. 2 East, on the eastern edge of Bole Hill; and found no trace of bases for survey equipment. Presumably the structures were smaller and less durable.
The search for the rest of the sighting towers met with mixed success, the authors finding some physical and some map evidence. The Sir William Hill Observatory (No. 2 West) appears to have been marked as an "old observatory" on the 1898 OS map. No brickwork was found but there is a mound of loose stone, some dressed, which might imply the sighting tower was built from local material rather than from brick. The 1898 map also marks an unnamed structure at the eastern edge of Yarncliff Wood, at the approximate site of No. 2 West observation point, where there is some broken brick and dressed stone among the dense brambles. This may be the remains of a sighting tower.
The 1923 OS map shows the eastern terminal as an "old observatory" in Lower Bradway, at a spot which now lies in a back garden in Elwood Road. In her history of Greenhill, Fiona Wainwright stated that this was a brick tunnel observation tower which stood until the 1930s. Other possible locations have been thus far either inaccessible being on private land or devoid of any remains.
No photographs of the Totley towers have been so far been located but Stella and Stuart have published a spectacular photograph of a surviving sighting tower at Carlesmoor in North Yorkshire, which looks to be of a similar design to the one drawn by Percy Rickard. That photograph is copyrighted by ACID; the ones at the top of this article are reproduced with the kind permission of the photographer, John Kelly, at http://happyhiker.co.uk.
July Meeting Cancelled
Whilst precautions to prevent the spread of the coronavirus are in place, the monthly meetings of Totley History Group have been cancelled.
In the meantime, please continue to support your history group by sending us your queries, contributions and comments.
On Wednesday 22nd July, there will be a visit to Stoney Middleston to see how their Well Dressings are made. This is a private visit ahead of the public event which runs from Saturday 25th July to Sunday 2nd August. Car parking is available on the roadside. Meet at 1.30pm in the Moon Inn car park.
A few copies are still available of Sally Goldsmith's book Thirteen Acres: John Ruskin and the Totley Communists. Totley was the site of a utopian scheme funded by art critic and social reformer John Ruskin. In 1877 he bought 13-acre St. George’s Farm so that nine Sheffield working men and their families could work the land and, to keep themselves busy, make boots and shoes. Sally tells an engaging story from our history with a quirky cast of characters including Ruskin himself, the poet and gay rights activist Edward Carpenter and Henry Swan, a cycling, vegetarian artist and Quaker. The book is available to order online from the The Guild of St. George by following this link.
A recently discovered box of WWII correspondence reveals the story of how a small group of ladies from Dore and Totley recruited knitters from the west of Sheffield and how their efforts made them the country's greatest provider of Comforts for the Minesweeping crews of the Royal Navy. The story is told in Knit For Victory, a new book from Totley History Group. Written by Pauline Burnett, it has 82 pages and many illustrations. It is on sale in local shops and via our website.
Since 1875 when there was only a Rolling Mill and Chemical Yard alongside the river a mile from Totley, the area has changed beyond anyone's imagination This book by Pauline Burnett tells the story of how it was named and grew into the community we know today. The Rise of Totley Rise has 94 pages including a useful index and is profusely illustrated throughout with many previously unpublished photographs from private collections.
The story is told in Totley War Memorial WW1 of the ten men from our village who gave their lives in the Great War. Written by Pauline Burnett, Jim Martin and Dorothy Prosser, a chapter is devoted to each of the soldiers with a family tree followed by as much information as could be discovered about the men and their families. There is also information about their military careers and the actions in which they lost their lives. The book has 64 pages and is illustrated throughout with photographs of the men, their families and the houses where they lived.
Charles Herbert Nunn enlisted in the British Army on 23 August 1915 and was sent to France on 18 December 1915 to served with the British Expeditionary Force. In March 1916 it was discovered that he was underage and he was returned home. Shortly after his 18th birthday he re-enlisted and was again posted abroad where, in addition to this trio of medals, he was awarded the Military Medal.
This certificate was awarded jointly by the Red Cross and St. John's Ambulance to Isaac Henry Williams, of Lemont Road, for his services during WW1 as a stretcher bearer. We are seeking anyone who can help us pass it on to a living relative.
In 1832 Samuel Dean pleaded guilty to stealing a quantity of lead from the Totley Rolling Mill and was sentenced to seven years transportation to Australia. He sailed on the Mangles and upon arrival in New South Wales he was sent to work for William Cox, the famous English explorer and pioneer. After receiving his Certificate of Freedom in 1840, Samuel became a farmer and went on to have a very large family. Samuel was born in Whitechapel around 1811 to parents Samuel Dean Snr. and Susannah Duck. His descendant Sarah Dean would like help in tracing his ancestry.
Ellen Topham was born in 1889 in Nottingham. Her parents had been living together since 1862 but had never married so it was most unusual that, after their deaths, Ellen was accepted into Cherrytree Orphanage. Even more so since her father, Snowden Topham, had been acquitted somewhat unexpectedly in a widely reported manslaughter trial. Ellen remained at Cherrytree until her death from pulmonary tuberculosis at the age of 15.
Mabel Wilkes was a resident in Cherrytree Orphanage between 1897 and 1905. Her granddaughter Sally Knights sent us these images of a book presented to Mabel as a prize for her writing. Sally also sent us some personal memories of her grandmother and a photograph of a locket which contains portraits of Mabel and her husband Septimus Gale.
John Henry Manby Keighley was living at Avenue Farm when he enlisted in 1916. He fought in France with the Cheshire Regiment but after home leave in early 1918 he went missing. The Army were unable to determine whether he had deserted or returned to the front and been either killed or captured by the enemy. In August 1919 he was formally presumed killed in action but it appears he did not die but returned home to his family.
Horace Ford was admitted to Cherrytree Orphanage on 26 October 1888 at the age of six. He left at the age of 14 to become an apprentice blacksmith and farrier. Soon after his 18th birthday Horace enlisted in the Imperial Yeomanry to serve his country in the war in South Africa. His letter home to his Orphanage mentor tells of the lucky escape he had in battle.
Pat Skidmore (née Sampy) lived on Totley Brook Road from 1932 to 1948 before her family moved to Main Avenue. In this short article she remembers her time at Totley All Saints School where she was a contemporary of Eric Renshaw and Bob Carr.
As we have nowhere to exhibit memorabilia and artifacts, we have created a Virtual Museum instead. The latest addition to our collection is this double-sided Totley Rise Post Office oval illuminated sign which was on the wall of 67 Baslow Road before the Post Office business transferred to number 71. Please contact us by email if you have things that you own and would like to see added to the virtual museum.
Conway Plumbe was a man of many talents who came to live in Totley Rise around 1912. As a young man he had poems published by Punch magazine and is remembered in modern collections of WW1 poetry. A number of his paintings were accepted by the Royal Academy. An engineering graduate of London University, he joined the Civil Service where he rose to a high level as a factory inspector, publishing two books on the subject and giving a series of talks on workplace health and safety on BBC radio during WW2. In retirement he wrote a philosophical-spiritual work called Release From Time.
Inside Totley Rise Methodist Church there is a Roll of Honour commemorating the soldiers from its congregation who served their king and country during the Great War. For all but one of the 28 names the soldier's regiment is recorded in the next column. The exception is David Cockshott for whom 'killed in action' is written alongside yet he appears on no war memorial in our area and no record of a mortally wounded soldier of that name is to be found. We think we have solved the mystery.
Mrs. Kate Plumbe moved from Mansfield to Totley Rise with a number of her family in 1913 and became closely involved with the Totley Union Church. Her daughter Winifred became a missionary and headmistress in Calcutta for over 38 years following which she returned home to live with her sister Hilda on Furniss Avenue. Hilda had also been a teacher, missionary and, like her mother, a volunteer at St. John's VAD during WW1.
Thomas Glossop was a cutler and razor manufacturer who was well known amongst cricketing and gardening circles. Despite going blind, he was able to continue his hobbies with remarkable success
The Totley Union Cycling Society Prize Giving and Fete was held on the fields near Abbeydale Hall on 18 July 1914. Anne Rafferty and Gordon Wainwright have named some of the people in two wonderful photographs of the event. Can you identify any more for us?
The Tyzack family are well known in our area for owning iron and steel trades at Walk Mill, Abbeydale Works, Totley Rolling Mill and Totley Forge. This article covers the history of the family from the late 18th century when William Tyzack the founder of the company was born until the early 20th century when Joshua Tyzack farmed at Avenue Farm, Dore.
Walter Waller Marrison moved to Totley around 1897 with his wife and their two young sons. He was a house builder who constructed properties around Totley Brook and Greenoak before ill health forced him to take up less physically demanding work. In 1904 he took over the tenancy of the grocers and off licence at number 71 Baslow Road. After his death in 1908, his widow Kate and later their eldest son Jack continued to run the business until it was sold in 1934.
Ron Wijk of Nieuw-Vennep in the Netherlands has sent us two scanned images of drawings of old cottages made by the celebrated Dutch painter, Anton Pieck (1895-1987) simply annotated "Totley", and wondered whether we could identify their locations.
We would like to thank Christopher Rodgers for bringing to our attention this fascinating log of the 85th Sheffield (St. John's and Totley Orphanage) Wolf Cub Pack for 1927-45. The log is published jointly by Sheffield Scout Archives and Totley History Group as a free PDF download. It is illustrated by no fewer than 92 photographs and is supported by a comprehensive index and biographies of some of the main participants.
Following our Open Meeting event on School Days, Roger Hart, Howard Adams and John Timperley have each written to us with their memories of Norwood School, which was located in the rooms attached to the Dore & Totley United Reformed Church on Totley Brook Road.
On 22nd July 1909 the children of Dore and Totley Schools celebrated by a pageant the union of England under King Ecgbert which took place at Dore in AD 827. The pageant was devised and written by Mrs Sarah Milner and her daughter Marjorie and performed in a field close to Avenue Farm in front of a large audience. Photographs of the event survive together with a fragment of the script.
John Edward Greenwood Pinder had lived all 46 years of his life in Totley but on census night, Sunday 2 April 1911, he was not at home; he was in Derby Gaol serving a sentence of three months hard labour. From the age of 20, John had been in and out of local courts for a series of minor offences including drunkenness, assault, wilful damage and night poaching. Finally he was sent to gaol for cutting down and stealing 86 small trees which he sold in Sheffield market for Christmas.
We have already transcribed the census returns for Totley, Totley Rise and Dore. Now we have transcribed Census Strays. These are people who were born in Totley but are missing from our earlier transcriptions. They may have been living, working or studying elsewhere or just away from home on the night the census was taken. Two people were in prison. Others were in Union Workhouses, hospitals and asylums. Fully indexed strays from the 1851, 1861, 1881, 1891, 1901 and 1911 censuses are available now.
We wish to thank Gillian Walker for allowing us to digitize an archive of material about the 1st Totley Scout Group. Most of the material was collected by Arthur Percival Birley in the period 1949-51 and there are many interesting documents pertaining to the building of the scout hut on Totley Hall Lane. In addition four Newsletters survive, two from the 1940s and two from 1971.
We are grateful to Angela Waite and All Saints' Parish Church for giving us access to baptismal and kindergarten birthday rolls dating from 1926 to 1941. We have transcribed the names, addresses, birthdates and baptismal dates and created an alphabetical index of entries for you to search.
Edmund Sanderson, a Sheffield estate agent, aquired the land on either side of the old drive to Totley Grove in 1874 and divided it into plots for development. He called it the Totley Brook Estate. But before many houses were built, the estate road was severed in two by the building of the Dore & Chinley Railway line. The eastern end of the road became the cul-de-sac we now call Grove Road.
John Roberts was born in Sheffield in 1798. He became a partner in one of the leading silversmiths firms in the city before moving to Abbeydale Park in 1851 and extending the house in Victorian gothic style. He paid for the building of St. John's Church and was believed to dispense more in charity than any other person in the neighbourhood including his protege Ebenezer Hall.
The Coke Family owned the Totley Hall Estate from 1791 to 1881. With the aid of a family tree to guide us, Josie Dunsmore takes us through the story of their tenure.
When the Rev. D'Ewes Coke inherited the Totley Hall Estate in 1791 it had two farms. Josie Dunsmore tells the story of how the two farms were combined under the tenancy of Peter Flint with the aid of field maps drawn by Flint himself and later by the Fairbanks family.
Do you think you recognize this face? More than sixty photographs of the girls and teachers at Hurlfield Grammar School for Girls in the 1940s were given to Totley History Group by Avril Critchley, who was herself a student at the school. The collection includes fifteen form photographs from June 1949. There would have been a number of girls from the Totley area attending the school in those days.
Christine Weaving tells the story of her 2 x great uncle George Edward Hukin, a Totley razor-grinder, and his life-long friendship with the academic, poet, writer, and free-thinker Edward Carpenter.
Eric Renshaw (pictured here on the right with Bob Carr) grew up and lived in Totley from 1932 to 1960. Many of his memories are of a sporting nature.
We are very grateful to Gordon Grayson for giving us this splendid sale document for the Norton Hall Estates, following the death in 1850 of Samuel Shore. The estates included a large part of Totley and the document has maps and illustrations, plus schedules of land and property with the names of tenants. We have also added a transcription of the entries for Totley and Dore.
Watch this Youtube video of the talk given by Dr. Mark Frost and Sally Goldsmith on Ruskin, Totley and St. George's Farm. The talk was hosted by Totley History Group on 20th May 2015 as part of the Ruskin in Sheffield programme. Also enjoy a video of the outdoor performance Boots, Fresh Air & Ginger Beer written by Sally.
When Jacqueline A. Gibbons became interested in what made her father tick, it began a journey through WW1 archive records and led to her flying from Toronto to visit the house and village where he lived and the countryside that he so much enjoyed. Jacqueline reminds us that in the early 20th century Sheffield was a driving force of industry and that Totley was the place where many of its remarkable people lived and where they formulated their ideas.
Edgar Wood was the designer of The Dingle, 172 Prospect Road, built in 1904 for Rev. William Blackshaw, the founder of the Croft House Settlement. The house, together with its western terrace and boundary walls, has now been awarded Grade II listed building status.
What was probably "the most perfect little garden railway in existence" in 1910 was to be found in the grounds of Brook House, Grove Road, the home of its designer and constructor, Guy Mitchell. Look at some wonderful photographs and read reports in newspapers and a full appreciation in Model Railways magazine.
We have now completed our transcription of Totley School's Admission Records for the period from 1877 to 1914. There is also a useful index to the names of the scholars and to their parents or guardians. We are very grateful to Sheffield Archives and Local Studies Library for allowing us to transcribe and publish these records and for permission to reproduce the photograph of a specimen page of the register.
On 8, 9 and 11 November 2014 Totley History Group held an exhibition at Dore & Totley United Reformed Church to commemorate the centenary of the First World War. Below are additional links to some of the photographs we were lent and stories we researched especially for the exhibition.
Oscar Creswick was a local farmer who served with the Army Service Corps in Salonika and who after the war returned to Totley to become the innkeeper of the Cricket Inn and a member of the village's successful tug of war team.
Walter Evans was a market gardener who also ran a small grocery shop on Hillfoot Road when war broke out. He fought with the Machine Gun Corps at the fourth battle of Ypres. After the war, Walter ran a grocers shop at the top of Main Avenue.
Fred Cartwright was another Totley soldier who survived the Great War. He fought in France and Belgium and although he wasn't wounded he was gassed and was home on sick leave when his daughter was delivered by Nurse Jessop during a snowstorm in January 1917.
Maurice Johnson joined the Yorkshire Dragoons, a territorial unit, on 1 Jan 1914 and so was called up at the very start of the war. He fought throughout the war on the Somme, at Ypres and at Cambrai. After demobilization in 1919 Maurice returned to his old occupation in the steel industry.
Bill Glossop lent us a letter written by his father, William Walton Glossop to his wife describing life in the army during training in the north east of England and asking her to keep him in mind with the children.
The photo above provides a link to an album of photographs taken of WW1 Hospitals at St. John's, Abbeydale and the Longshaw Estate.
Nora Green, of Chapel Lane, was only 14 when war broke out. In 1914 she was ill with diphtheria and was sent to the isolation hospital at Holmley Lane, Dronfield. Nora recovered and wrote a letter of thanks to one of the hospital staff and the reply she received survives.
We have collected together on this page the names of local men who appear on various War Memorials and Rolls of Honour in Totley, Dore, Abbeydale, Norton, Holmesfield and Dronfield.
Unfortunately we were unable to identify all the photographs we were lent of Totley Soldiers. Please take a look at this album to see if you recognize any of the missing names.
This walk visits locations that have strong associations with Totley during the First World War. It includes the homes of the ten soldiers from the village who lost their lives, the auxiliary hospitals, war memorials, and even the rifle range on which the soldiers trained. Take a look at the first draft of a new walk by the authors of "Totley War Memorial WW1 1914-1918"
We wish to thank the Trustees of Cherrytree for giving us permission to publish transcriptions of the Cherrytree Orphanage Admissions Book entries for the years 1866-1929. There is also an alphabetical index for you to look at.
Our transcriptions of local trade directories have been expanded to cover the 95 years from 1837-1932 and have also been indexed. From the days when there were a handful of farmers, stone masons, saw handle makers & scythe grinders to the wonders of the Totley Bridge Garage Company, Betty's Boudoir and The Heatherfield Shopping Centre.
Totley Church of England Parish Magazines for the years 1922-1939 and 1948-1967 with notices of births, marriages and deaths and accounts of spiritual, educational, charitable and social matters in the village.
Around 90 photographs taken by Stuart Greenhoff for his thesis A Geographical Study of Dore and Totley including several of Totley Moor Brickworks. Superb!
Chronologically ordered snippets of information recorded by Brian Edwards during his many years of research into our local history.
Read the inscriptions on more than 700 gravestones in the churchyard.
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